The Synoptic Gospels & the Septuagint

Contents


Introduction

Following my examination of Paul’s use of the Septuagint, below I survey quotations of the Hebrew Bible in the three synoptic gospels: Mark, Matthew, and Luke. This includes how Matthew and Luke may change their re-use of material in their two key sources, Mark and Q. An overwhelming majority of the quotations from all texts come from the Septuagint (a little over eighty percent). The remainder, labeled ‘no match’ and ‘conceptual match’, have a variety of qualifications that may not completely exclude them from deriving from the Septuagint in some capacity.

By ‘verbatim’ I mean the author’s quotation is word-for-word identical to the Septuagint. By ‘near-verbatim’, the quotation contains strings of identical or near-identical wording from the LXX, even though the author may have modified or rearranged parts. By ‘paraphrase’ I mean the author appears to be working from the LXX, but keeps only some of the text he is borrowing from.

Text that is striked out is what does not match identically between the gospel’s quotation and the text in the Septuagint. Striked out text may have a match between the LXX and the gospel, but it may not be identical.

The graphics below need a point of clarification: when a quotation in Mark is reproduced in Matthew and/or Luke, the copy is not counted in addition to the original quotation in Mark. For example, Mark 4.12 contains a quotation from Isa 6.9–10, and Matthew and Luke each reproduce (and redact) this instance. Mark’s quotation is counted on the graphics Quotations per Type, Total and Quotations in Mark, but Matthew’s and Luke’s reproductions of this instance are not also counted in Quotations per Type, Total, nor in Quotations in Matthew or Quotations in Luke.


Quotations per Type, Total


Quotations in Mark


Quotations in Q


Quotations in Matthew


Quotations in Luke


Mark’s Quotations Reused in Matthew


Mark’s Quotations Reused in Luke


Mark

ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου ἵνα φυλάξῃ σε ἐν τῇ ὁδ (Exo 23.20)

ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐξαποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου καὶ ἐπιβλέψεται ὁδὸν πρὸ προσώπου μου (Mal 3.1)

ἰδοὺ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου (1.2)

Near-verbatim. Mark is obviously citing Mal 3.1, but differs in a variety of ways. However, he appears to blend Mal 3.1 with Exo 23.20, perhaps intentionally or from memory. Mark replaces ἐπιβλέψεται with κατασκευάσει (a rare verb in the LXX, but used in Isa 40.28, the same chapter as the following quotation). Despite the differences, Mark is dependent on the LXX here.

Matt 11.10 and Luke 7.27 each keep Mark's version, but both append ἔμπροσθέν σου, while Matt restores ἐγὼ.

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν (Isa 40.3)

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ (1.3)

Near-verbatim. Mark changes τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν (our God's path) into τρίβους αὐτοῦ (his path), in order to identify the antecedent κυρίου (lord) with Jesus as the Messiah.

Matt 3.3 and Luke 3.4 copy Mark verbatim.

βλέποντες βλέψετε καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδητε ἐπαχύνθη γὰρ ἡ καρδία τοῦ λαοῦ τούτου καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν αὐτῶν βαρέως ἤκουσαν καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτῶν ἐκάμμυσαν μήποτε ἴδωσιν τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ὠσὶν ἀκούσωσιν καὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ συνῶσιν καὶ ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἰάσομαι αὐτος (Isa 6.9–10)

βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν καὶ κούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτος (4.12)

Near-verbatim. Mark shortens this quote way down, but what he keeps is modified directly from the LXX.

Matt 13.14–15 instead reproduces the LXX exactly, minus the word αὐτῶν near the middle. Luke 8.10 follows Mark but truncates it further.

ὁ λαὸς οὗτος τοῖς χείλεσιν αὐτῶν τιμῶσίν με ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με διδάσκοντες ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων καὶ διδασκαλίας (Isa 29.13)

οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμ ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με διδάσκοντες διδασκαλίας ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων (7.6–7)

Near-verbatim. Mark swaps ὁ λαὸς and οὗτος, drops αὐτῶν, swaps τιμῶσίν and με, changes τιμῶσίν into τιμᾷ, and swaps ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων and διδασκαλίας while dropping καὶ.

Matt 15.8–9 copies Mark verbatim, but restores the order of ὁ λαὸς οὗτος.

τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα (Exo 20.12)

τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου (7.10a)

Verbatim. Mark includes a second σου, found in some copies of Exo 20.12.

Matt 15.4 drops both instances of σου, while Luke 18.20 keeps only the first.

ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα αὐτοῦ ἢ μητέρα αὐτοῦ τελευτήσει θανάτῳ (LXX Exo 21.16)

ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω (7.10b)

Near-verbatim. Mark drops both instances of αὐτοῦ, swaps τελευτήσει and θανάτῳ, and changes τελευτήσει into τελευτάτω.

Matt 15.4 copies Mark verbatim.

ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῖς καὶ οὐ βλέπουσιν ὦτα αὐτοῖς καὶ οὐκ ἀκούουσιν (Jer 5.21)

ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντες οὐ βλέπετε καὶ ὦτα ἔχοντες οὐκ ἀκούετε (8.18)

Paraphrase. The vocabulary and word order is similar enough that Mark was probably thinking of Jer 5.21.

γὰρ σκώληξ αὐτῶν οὐ τελευτήσει καὶ τὸ πῦρ αὐτῶν οὐ σβεσθήσεται (Isa 66.24)

ὅπου ὁ σκώληξ αὐτῶν οὐ τελευτ καὶ τὸ πῦρ οὐ σβέννυται (9.48)

Near-verbatim. Mark's most substantial changes are verb modifications.

ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτούς (Gen 1.27)

ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτούς (10.6)

Verbatim.

Matt 19.4 copies Mark verbatim.

ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ προσκολληθήσεται πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν (Gen 2.24)

ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ προσκολληθήσεται πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν (10.7–8)

Near-verbatim. Mark reproduces the LXX exactly, minus αὐτοῦ after μητέρα.

Matthew copies Mark, but modifies the intial ἕνεκεν into ἕνεκα, removes the other αὐτοῦ after πατέρα, and drops προσ as the prefix to προσκολληθήσεται, as well as the πρὸς right after it.

οὐ μοιχεύσεις οὐ κλέψεις οὐ φονεύσεις οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις (Exo 20.13-16)

οὐ μοιχεύσεις οὐ φονεύσεις οὐ κλέψεις οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις (Deut 5.17-20)

μὴ φονεύσς μὴ μοιχεύσς μὴ κλέψς μὴ ψευδομαρτυρήσς (10.19)

No match. Mark's version changes the adverb οὐ into μὴ, uses different verb tenses, and moves the third item (μὴ φονεύσῃς) to the front of his list.

Matt 19.18 uses adverb and verb tenses from the LXX but follows Mark's order, while Luke 18.20 keeps Mark's adverb and verb tenses but follows the order in LXX Deut 5.17B.

τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα (Exo 20.12)

τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου (10.19)

Verbatim. Mark includes a second σου, found in some copies of Exo 20.12.

Matt 19.19 and Luke 18.20 copy Mark verbatim, but Matthew removes the σου.

εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου (LXX Psa 117.26)

εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου (11.9)

Verbatim.

Matt 21.9 and Luke 13.35 copy Mark verbatim. Luke 19.38 adds ὁ βασιλεὺς.

γὰρ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν (Isa 56.7)

ὁ οἶκός μου οἶκος προσευχῆς κληθήσεται πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν (11.17)

Verbatim. Mark only drops the conjunction γὰρ out of grammatical necessity.

Matt 21.13 copies Mark verbatim, but drops πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν.

λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας παρὰ κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν (LXX 117.22-23)

λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας παρὰ κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη καὶ ἔστιν θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν (12.10–11)

Verbatim.

Matt 21.42 and Luke 20.17 copy Mark verbatim, but Luke drops everything after γωνίας.

ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ […] θεὸς Αβρααμ καὶ θεὸς Ισαακ καὶ θεὸς Ιακωβ (Exo 3.6)

ἐγὼ ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ καὶ θεὸς Ἰακώβ (12.26)

Near-verbatim. Mark drops εἰμι, and skips a part of the verse.

Matt 22.23 copies Mark verbatim, but restores εἰμι and adds the article to the second and third instances of θεὸς.

ἄκουε Ισραηλ κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστιν καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς δυνάμεώς σου (Deut 6.4–5)

ἄκουε Ἰσραήλ κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστιν καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου (12.29–30)

Near-verbatim. Mark copies the LXX exactly, except that he replaces δυνάμεώς (power) with διανοίας (thought), then adds another clause, καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου (and with your whole strength).

Matt 22.37 and Luke 10.27 each remove everything before ἀγαπήσεις, and then make a variety of changes. Matthew changes the nouns in the list from the genitive into the dative (e.g. καρδίας becomes καρδίᾳ), which Luke does as well except for the first in the list. Both Matthew and Luke follow Mark in using διανοίας instead of δυνάμεώς, but only Luke keeps Mark's addition ἰσχύος, which he places in the list before διανοίας.

ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν (Lev 19.18)

ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν (12.31)

Verbatim.

Matt 22.39 copies Mark verbatim. Matt 5.43 drops ὡς σεαυτόν, while ἀγαπήσεις is only implied in Luke 10.27b from the 27a (above).

εἶπεν κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ μου κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου (LXX Psa 109.1)

εἶπεν κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ μου κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου (12.36)

Near-verbatim. Mark drops the article on κύριος, and changes ὑποπόδιον into ὑποκάτω.

Matt 22.44 and Luke 20.42–43 copy Mark verbatim, though Luke restores ὑποπόδιον.

βδέλυγμα ἐρημώσεως (OG Dan 11.31)

τὸ βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως (13.14)

Near-verbatim. Mark makes the phrase articular.

Matt 24.15 copies Mark verbatim.

οἱ γὰρ ἀστέρες τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ὁ ᾿Ωρίων καὶ πᾶς ὁ κόσμος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸ φς οὐ δώσουσιν καὶ σκοτισθήσεται τοῦ ἡλίου ἀνατέλλοντος καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φς αὐτῆς (Isa 13.10)

πάντα τὰ ἄστρα πεσεῖται ὡς φύλλα ἐξ ἀμπέλου καὶ ὡς πίπτει φύλλα ἀπὸ συκῆς (Isa 34.4)

καὶ σεισθήσεται ὁ οὐρανός ὁ ἥλιος καὶ ἡ σελήνη συσκοτάσουσιν καὶ τὰ ἄστρα δσουσιν τὸ φέγγος αὐτῶν (Joel 2.10)

ὁ ἥλιος σκοτισθήσεται καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φέγγος αὐτῆς καὶ οἱ ἀστέρες ἔσονται ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πίπτοντες καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς σαλευθήσονται (13.24–25)

Paraphrase. Mark combines and generalizes language from three similar texts. Isa 13.10 shows the most influence, including a near-verbatim string of eight words. Mark may have been working from memory, but is clearly dependent on the LXX here.

Matt 24.29 copies Mark, but makes a few changes in the second half.

καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὡς υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου ρχετο […] δόξα (OG Dan 7.13–14)

καὶ τότε ὄψονται τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλαις μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς καὶ δόξης (Mark 13.26)

καὶ ὄψονται τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ μετὰ δυνάμεως καὶ δόξης πολλῆς (Matt 24.30b)

Paraphrase. While the few verbal parallels are what we might expect if Mark were translating directly from the Hebrew, which would otherwise make it difficult to tell if this is dependent on the Old Greek copy of Daniel, this chapter has already shown clear dependence on not just the LXX, but OG Dan specifically.

Matt 24.30 copies Mark, but changes ἐν νεφέλαις into ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ to match OG Dan, and moves πολλῆς from after δυνάμεως to after δόξης.

πάλιν συνάξει σε ἐκ πάντων τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰς οὓς διεσκόρπισέν σε κύριος ἐκεῖ ἐὰν ᾖ ἡ διασπορά σου ἀπ’ ἄκρου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἕως ἄκρου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (Deut 30.3–4)

τότε ἀποστελεῖ τοὺς ἀγγέλους καὶ ἐπισυνάξει τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων ἀπ’ ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ (13.27)

Paraphrase. Mark is evidently thinking of Deut 30.3–4, but borrows from it only loosely.

Matt 24.31 copies Mark, but drops τότε, expands at other points, and changes ἀπ’ ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ into ἀπ’ ἄκρων οὐρανῶν ἕως ἄκρων αὐτῶν.

πατάξατε τοὺς ποιμένας καὶ ἐκσπάσατε τὰ πρόβατα (Zech 13.7)

πατάξω τὸν ποιμένα καὶ τὰ πρόβατα διασκορπισθήσονται (14.27)

Near-verbatim. Mark makes a few small changes, and changes ἐκσπάσατε into διασκορπισθήσονται.

Matt 26.31 copies Mark, but moves διασκορπισθήσονται before τὰ πρόβατα, and adds τῆς ποίμνης.

διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον (LXX Psa 21.19)

διαμερίζονται τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ βάλλοντες κλῆρον ἐπ’ αὐτὰ τίς τί ἄρῃ (15.24)

Paraphrase. Mark modifies the psalm to function as narration, while removing some of the middle.

Matt 27.35 copies Mark verbatim, but restores the initial verb.

ὁ θεὸς ὁ θεός μου πρόσχες μοι ἵνα τί ἐγκατέλιπές με (Psa 22.1)

ὁ θεός μου ὁ θεός μου εἰς τί ἐγκατέλιπές με (15.34)

θεέ μου θεέ μου ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες (27.46)

Paraphrase. Mark copies the LXX text, but shortens the middle.

Matt 27.46 follows Mark in shortening the middle, but changes the nominative ὁ θεός into the vocative θεέ. Matthew also restores ἵνα to the question ἵνα τί as it is in the psalm, but this is Matthew's own style as well, and he rearranges the word order of the question, possibly to place weight on με over ἐγκατέλιπές. These changes could be Matthew intending to correct Mark's grammar.


Q source

οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι τῷ ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος θεοῦ (Deut 8.3)

οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος θεοῦ (Matt 4.4)

οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος (Luke 4.4)

Near-verbatim. Matthew only drops the article τῷ, while Luke removes the second half of the quotation.

τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ὁδοῖς σου ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου (LXX Psa 90.11–12)

τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου (Matt 4.6)

τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε καὶ ὅτι ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου (Luke 4.10–11)

Near-verbatim. Matthew and Luke both copy the LXX verbatim, but each replaces a portion in the middle (of different lengths) with a simple conjunction.

οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου (Deut 6.16)

οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου (Matt 4.7)

οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου (Luke 4.12)

Verbatim.

κύριον τὸν θεόν σου φοβηθήσῃ καὶ αὐτῷ λατρεύσεις (Deut 6.13)

κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις (Matt 4.10)

κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις (Luke 4.8)

Near-verbatim. Both gospels change φοβηθήσῃ into προσκυνήσεις and drop μόνῳ.


Matthew

ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει καὶ τέξεται υἱόν καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐμμανουήλ (Isa 7.14)

ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ ἕξει καὶ τέξεται υἱόν καὶ καλέσουσιν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐμμανουήλ (1.23)

Near-verbatim. Matthew only modifies the verb καλέσεις.

καὶ σύ βηθλέεμ οἶκος τοῦ ἐφραθα ὀλιγοστὸς εἶ τοῦ εἶναι ἐν χιλιάσιν ἰούδα ἐκ σοῦ μοι ἐξελεύσεται τοῦ εἶναι εἰς ἄρχοντα ἐν τῷ ἰσραήλ (LXX Mic 5.1)

σὺ ποιμανεῖς τὸν λαόν μου τὸν ἰσραήλ καὶ σὺ ἔσει εἰς ἡγούμενον ἐπὶ τὸν ἰσραήλ (2 Sam 5.2)

καὶ σὺ βηθλέεμ γῆ ἰούδα οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν ἰούδα ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν ἰσραήλ (2.6)

Paraphrase. Matthew's quotation blends two unrelated texts in the LXX, while his remaining changes appear to be a deliberate revision to suit his narrative.

ἐξ αἰγύπτου μετεκάλεσα τὰ τέκνα αὐτοῦ (Hos 11.1)

ἐξ αἰγύπτου ἐκάλεσα τὸν υἱόν μου (2.15)

No match. Except for ἐξ αἰγύπτου and the similar verbs, Matthew's text does not resemble the LXX. It instead corresponds more to the Hebrew.

φωνὴ ἐν ῥαμα ἠκούσθη θρήνου καὶ κλαυθμο καὶ ὀδυρμο ῥαχὴλ ἀποκλαιομένη οὐκ ἤθελεν παύσασθαι ἐπὶ τοῖς υἱοῖς αὐτῆς ὅτι οὐκ εἰσίν (LXX Jer 38.15)

φωνὴ ἐν ῥαμὰ ἠκούσθη κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὀδυρμὸς πολύς ῥαχὴλ κλαίουσα τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς καὶ οὐκ ἤθελεν παρακληθῆναι ὅτι οὐκ εἰσίν (2.18)

Near-verbatim. Despite a few strings of text missing, and a few non-matching verbs, Matthew follows the LXX.

ὅτι ἡγιασμένον ναζιραῖον ἔσται τῷ θεῷ τὸ παιδάριον ἐκ τῆς γαστρός (Judges 13.5)

ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται (2.23)

Paraphrase. Scholars struggle to explain this quotation, since no such quote exists in the Hebrew Bible or the Septuagint. The most likely explanation is that Matthew is here inventing an etiology based on a single word in the LXX. Acts 24.5 mentions that a follower of Jesus could be called a 'Nazorean' (ναζωραῖος). Since Jesus was known to be a 'Nazarene' (ναζαρηνός, i.e. a person from Nazareth), Matthew conflated the two terms, now calling Jesus himself a 'Nazorean'. Then, to justify applying the epithet retroactively to Jesus, he claimed it had been predicted by 'the prophets'. He apparently had in mind Judges 13.5, where Samson is called a 'Nazirite' (ναζιραῖος). Changing a single vowel results in 'Nazorean' (ναζωραῖος).

ζαβουλὼν γῆ νεφθαλίμ ὁδὸν θαλάσσης καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ τὴν παραλίαν κατοικοῦντες καὶ πέραν τοῦ ἰορδάνου γαλιλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν τὰ μέρη τῆς ἰουδαίας (LXX Isa 8.23)

γῆ ζαβουλὼν καὶ γῆ νεφθαλίμ ὁδὸν θαλάσσης πέραν τοῦ ἰορδάνου γαλιλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν ὁ λαὸς ὁ καθήμενος (4.15–16)

Near-verbatim. Matthew truncates the beginning, removes a string of text in the middle, and changes the ending, but otherwise follows the LXX.

οἱ δὲ πραεῖς κληρονομήσουσιν γῆν (LXX Psa 36.11)

μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν (5.5)

Verbatim. Matthew copies the psalm exactly, but expands it to fit with the beatitudes. (This is found within traditionally Q material, but there is no match in Luke.)

οὐ φονεύσεις (LXX Exo 20.15)

οὐ φονεύσεις (5.21)

Verbatim.

οὐ μοιχεύσεις (LXX Exo 20.13)

οὐ μοιχεύσεις (5.27)

Verbatim.

ἐὰν δέ τις λάβῃ γυναῖκα καὶ συνοικήσῃ αὐτῇ καὶ ἔσται ἐὰν μὴ εὕρῃ χάριν ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ ὅτι εὗρεν ἐν αὐτῇ ἄσχημον πρᾶγμα καὶ γράψει αὐτῇ βιβλίον ἀποστασίου καὶ δώσει εἰς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῆς καὶ ἐξαποστελεῖ αὐτὴν ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας αὐτοῦ (Deut 24.1)

ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ δότω αὐτῇ ἀποστάσιον (5.31)

Conceptual match. Matthew does not quote or even paraphrase here, so much as simply summarize the whole concept with a few matching words.

Similar to the use of Deut 24.1 in Matt 5.31

(n/a)

οὐκ ἐπιορκήσεις ἀποδώσεις δὲ τῷ κυρίῳ τοὺς ὅρκους σου (5.33)

No match. There is a vague conceptual similarity to ἀπόδος τῷ ὑψίστῳ τὰς εὐχάς σου in LXX Psa 49.14.

ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος (e.g. Exo 21.24)

ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος (5.38)

Near-verbatim. Matthew only inserts the conjunction καὶ.

οὗτος τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν φέρει καὶ περὶ ἡμῶν ὀδυνᾶται (Isa 53.4)

αὐτὸς τὰς ἀσθενείας ἡμῶν ἔλαβεν καὶ τὰς νόσους ἐβάστασεν (8.17)

No match. This is the verse Matthew has in mind, but he does not follow the LXX.

ἔλεος θέλω καὶ οὐ θυσίαν (Hos 6.6)

ἔλεος θέλω καὶ οὐ θυσίαν (9.13)

Verbatim.

υἱὸς ἀτιμάζει πατέρα θυγάτηρ ἐπαναστήσεται ἐπὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτῆς νύμφη ἐπὶ τὴν πενθερὰν αὐτῆς ἐχθροὶ ἀνδρὸς πάντες οἱ ἄνδρες οἱ ἐν τῷ οἴκ αὐτοῦ (Mic 7.6)

ἄνθρωπον κατὰ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ θυγατέρα κατὰ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτῆς καὶ νύμφην κατὰ τῆς πενθερᾶς αὐτῆς καὶ ἐχθροὶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οἱ οἰκιακοὶ αὐτοῦ (10.35–36)

No match. While Matthew shares some verbal similarities, these are necessitated by translation regardless of whether he used the LXX.

ἰακώβ ὁ παῖς μου ἀντιλήμψομαι αὐτοῦ ἰσραήλ ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου προσεδέξατο αὐτὸν ἡ ψυχή μου ἔδωκα τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπ’ αὐτόν κρίσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἐξοίσει οὐ κεκράξεται οὐδὲ ἀνήσει οὐδὲ ἀκουσθήσεται ἔξω ἡ φωνὴ αὐτοῦ κάλαμον τεθλασμένον οὐ συντρίψει καὶ λίνον καπνιζόμενον οὐ σβέσει ἀλλὰ εἰς ἀλήθειαν ἐξοίσει κρίσιν ἀναλάμψει καὶ οὐ θραυσθήσεται ἕως ἂν θῇ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς κρίσιν καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν (Isa 42.1–4)

ἰδοὺ ὁ παῖς μου ὃν ᾑρέτισα ὁ ἀγαπητός μου εἰς ὃν εὐδόκησεν ἡ ψυχή μου θήσω τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπ’ αὐτόν καὶ κρίσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἀπαγγελεῖ οὐκ ἐρίσει οὐδὲ κραυγάσει οὐδὲ ἀκούσει τις ἐν ταῖς πλατείαις τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ κάλαμον συντετριμμένον οὐ κατεάξει καὶ λίνον τυφόμενον οὐ σβέσει ἕως ἂν ἐκβάλῃ εἰς νῖκος τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν (12.18–21)

Paraphrase. There are too many identical strings of text between the LXX and Matthew's quotation to be a coincidence of Matthew translating directly from the Hebrew, but parts better resemble the Hebrew text than the LXX translation. It may be that Matthew used the LXX as his base and inserted his own Hebrew translation in a few places, or vice versa.

ἀνοίξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὸ στόμα μου φθέγξομαι προβλήματα ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς (LXX Psa 77.2)

ἀνοίξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὸ στόμα μου ἐρεύξομαι κεκρυμμένα ἀπὸ καταβολῆς [κόσμου] (13.35)

Near-verbatim. Matthew copies the LXX verbatim in the first half, but the second half is an atypical phrase found in, e.g., just a handful of NT passages.

ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ ἐπὶ στόματος τριῶν μαρτύρων σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα (Deut 19.15)

ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων τριῶν σταθῇ πᾶν ῥῆμα (18.16)

Near-verbatim. Matthew copies the LXX, but shortens it.

χαῖρε σφόδρα θύγατερ σιών κήρυσσε θύγατερ ἰερουσαλήμ ἰδοὺ ὁ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεταί σοι δίκαιος καὶ σῴζων αὐτός πραῢς καὶ ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἐπὶ ὑποζύγιον (Zech 9.9)

εἴπατε τῇ θυγατρὶ σιών ἰδοὺ ὁ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεταί σοι πραῢς καὶ ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἐπὶ ὄνον καὶ ἐπὶ πῶλον υἱὸν ὑποζυγίου (21.5)

Paraphrase. Matthew shortens the quotation and modifies some of it, but otherwise follows the LXX.

ἐκ στόματος νηπίων καὶ θηλαζόντων κατηρτίσω αἶνον (LXX Psa 8.3)

ἐκ στόματος νηπίων καὶ θηλαζόντων κατηρτίσω αἶνον (21.16)

Verbatim.

ἐὰν δὲ κατοικῶσιν ἀδελφοὶ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ καὶ ἀποθάνῃ εἷς ἐξ αὐτῶν σπέρμα δὲ μὴ ᾖ αὐτῷ οὐκ ἔσται ἡ γυνὴ τοῦ τεθνηκότος ἔξω ἀνδρὶ μὴ ἐγγίζοντι ὁ ἀδελφὸς τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς εἰσελεύσεται πρὸς αὐτὴν καὶ λήμψεται αὐτὴν ἑαυτῷ γυναῖκα καὶ συνοικήσει αὐτῇ (Deut 25.5)

ἐάν τις ἀποθάνῃ μὴ ἔχων τέκνα ἐπιγαμβρεύσει ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀναστήσει σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ (22.24)

Conceptual match. Similar to the use of Deut 24.1 in Matt 5.31, here Matthew summarizes the whole concept with a few matching words.

καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀνόμοις ἐλογίσθη (Isa 53.12)

καὶ μετὰ ἀνόμων ἐλογίσθη (22.37)

No match. This one is so brief that it's hard to tell whether Matthew is modifying the LXX, or simply coinciding with his own translation. His previous use of the chapter was not a match to the LXX, so I'm inclined to say the same here.

καὶ κόψονται ἐπ’ αὐτὸν κοπετὸν ὡς ἐπ’ ἀγαπητὸν καὶ ὀδυνηθήσονται ὀδύνην ὡς ἐπὶ πρωτοτόκῳ (Zech 12.10)

καὶ τότε κόψονται πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς (24.30a)

No match. Zech 12.10 verse is quoted directly in John 19.37, and the same combination with Dan 7.13–14 is also found in Rev 1.7. These indicate Zech 12.10 influenced Matthew here, but except for the verb there are no other similarities with the LXX.

καὶ ἐρῶ πρὸς αὐτούς εἰ καλὸν ἐνώπιον ὑμῶν ἐστιν δότε στήσαντες τὸν μισθόν μου ἢ ἀπείπασθε καὶ ἔστησαν τὸν μισθόν μου τριάκοντα ἀργυροῦς καὶ εἶπεν κύριος πρός με κάθες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ χωνευτήριον καὶ σκέψαι εἰ δόκιμόν ἐστιν ὃν τρόπον ἐδοκιμάσθην ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν καὶ ἔλαβον τοὺς τριάκοντα ἀργυροῦς καὶ ἐνέβαλον αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸν οἶκον κυρίου εἰς τὸ χωνευτήριον (Zech 11.12–13)

καὶ ἔλαβον τὰ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια τὴν τιμὴν τοῦ τετιμημένου ὃν ἐτιμήσαντο ἀπὸ υἱῶν ἰσραήλ καὶ ἔδωκαν αὐτὰ εἰς τὸν ἀγρὸν τοῦ κεραμέως καθὰ συνέταξέν μοι κύριος (27.9–10)

No match. A vague parallel is found in Zech 11.12–13, but it betters fits the Hebrew (which mentions a 'potter', corresponding to the 'potter's field' in Matthew) rather than the LXX (which instead says 'furnace'). However, Matthew attributes this prophecy to Jeremiah, but no such text exists. He may have been thinking of Jer 19, but it fits his context even less than the passage from Zech 11.


Luke

ὃς ἀποκαταστήσει καρδίαν πατρὸς πρὸς υἱὸν καὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου πρὸς τὸν πλησίον αὐτοῦ μὴ ἔλθω καὶ πατάξω τὴν γῆν ἄρδην (LXX Mal 3.23)

ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα καὶ ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων ἑτοιμάσαι κυρίῳ λαὸν κατεσκευασμένον (1.17)

No match. The only similarities are the words for 'heart' and 'father'.

εἶπεν δὲ κύριος πρὸς μωϋσῆν λέγων ἁγίασόν μοι πᾶν πρωτότοκον πρωτογενὲς διανοῖγον πᾶσαν μήτραν ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς ἰσραήλ ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπου ἕως κτήνους ἐμοί ἐστιν (Exo 13.1-2)

καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν νόμον μωϋσέως ἀνήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα παραστῆσαι τῷ κυρίῳ καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν νόμῳ κυρίου ὅτι πᾶν ἄρσεν διανοῖγον μήτραν ἅγιον τῷ κυρίῳ κληθήσεται (2.23)

No match. The only verbal similarities comes from a necessity of translation.

δύο τρυγόνας ἢ δύο νεοσσοὺς περιστερῶν (Lev 15.14)

ζεῦγος τρυγόνων ἢ δύο νοσσοὺς περιστερῶν (2.24)

Near-verbatim. Luke replaces one instance of δύο ('two') with ζεῦγος ('pair').

πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται καὶ ἔσται πάντα τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθεῖαν καὶ τραχεῖα εἰς πεδία καὶ ὀφθήσεται ἡ δόξα κυρίου καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ (Isa 40.4–5)

πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται καὶ ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείαν καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ (3.5–6)

Near-verbatim. Luke shortens the quotation in a few places.

καὶ ἔζησεν Ἀρφαξὰδ ἑκατὸν τριάκοντα πέντε ἔτη καὶ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Καϊνὰν (LXX Gen 11.12)

τοῦ Καϊνὰμ τοῦ Ἀρφαξὰδ (3.36ab)

Paraphrase. Cainan the son of Arphaxad only exists in the LXX.

πνεῦμα κυρίου ἐπ’ ἐμέ οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς ἀπέσταλκέν με ἰάσασθαι τοὺς συντετριμμένους τῇ καρδίᾳ κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν καλέσαι ἐνιαυτὸν κυρίου δεκτὸν (Isa 61.1–2)

οὐχὶ τοιαύτην νηστείαν ἐγὼ ἐξελεξάμην λέγει κύριος ἀλλὰ λῦε πάντα σύνδεσμον ἀδικίας διάλυε στραγγαλιὰς βιαίων συναλλαγμάτων ἀπόστελλε τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει καὶ πᾶσαν συγγραφὴν ἄδικον διάσπα (Isa 58.6)

πνεῦμα κυρίου ἐπ’ ἐμὲ οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς ἀπέσταλκέν με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν ἀποστελαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν κυρίου δεκτόν (4.18–19)

Near-verbatim. Luke removes a clause from Isa 61.1, but then adds a clause from Isa 58.6.

καὶ ἐροῦσιν τοῖς ὄρεσιν καλύψατε ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῖς βουνοῖς πέσατε ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς (Hos 10.8)

τότε ἄρξονται λέγειν τοῖς ὄρεσιν πέσετε ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ τοῖς βουνοῖς καλύψατε ἡμᾶς (23.30)

Near-verbatim. Luke reversed the order of the last three clauses.

εἰς χεῖράς σου παραθήσομαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου (LXX Psa 30.6)

εἰς χεῖράς σου παρατίθεμαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου (23.46)

Near-verbatim.

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