1 Enoch in the New Testament

1 Enoch in the New Testament

Contents


Matthew

Direct verbal dependence.

Matt 22.13
Then the king said to the servants, ‘Bind him, feet and hands; throw him out into the darkness outside’

1 Enoch 10.4
And he said to Raphael, ‘Bind Azael, feet and hands, and throw him into the darkness

τοτε ο βασιλευς ειπεν τοις διακονοις δησαντες αυτου ποδας και χειρας εκβαλετε αυτον εις το σκοτος το εξωτερον

και τω ραφαηλ ειπεν δησον τον αζαηλ ποσιν και χερσιν και βαλε αυτον εις το σκοτος


1 Enoch 62.5
pain will seize them when they see the son of man sitting on the throne of his glory

1 Enoch 69.27
he sat on the throne of his glory and the whole judgment was given to the son of man

1 Enoch 69.29
the son of man has appeared and he has sat down on the throne of his glory

Matt 19.28
at the renewal of all things when the son of man is seated on the throne of his glory

Matt 25.31
when the son of man comes in his glory and all the angels with him then he will sit on the throne of his glory


Judah

The whole letter is loaded with allusions to and paraphrases of 1 Enoch, along with one direct quotation. In all the New Testament, Judah is the most obviously directly dependent on 1 Enoch, because the author names the book as his source. Because 2 Peter is an expanded version of Judah, this means 2 Peter is dependent on 1 Enoch second-hand.

Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 12.4
say to the watchers of heaven—who abandoned the highest heaven

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

ειπε τοις εγρηγοροις του ουρανου οιτινες απολιποντες του ουρανον τον υψηλον


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 15.3
Why have you abandoned the high heaven, the eternal sanctuary

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

δια τι απελιπετε τον ουρανον τον υψηλον τον αγιον του αιωνος


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 15.7
The spirits of heaven, in heaven is their dwelling

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

τα πνευματα του ουρανου εν τω ουρανω η κατοικησις αυτων


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 18.14
this has become a prison for the stars and the host of heaven

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

δεσμωτηριον τουτο εγενετο τοις αστεροις και ταις δυναμεσιν του ουρανου


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 10.4–5
bind Asael feet and hands and cast him into the darkness […] and let him dwell there forever

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

δησον τον αζαηλ ποσιν και χερσιν και βαλε αυτον εις το σκοτος […] και οικησατω εκει εις τους αιωνας


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 10.4–5
bind Asael feet and hands and cast him into the darkness […] and cover him in darkness

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

δησον τον αζαηλ ποσιν και χερσιν και βαλε αυτον εις το σκοτος […] και επικαλυψον αυτω το σκοτος


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 17.2
And they led me away to a dark place

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

και απηγαγον με εις ζοφωδη τοπον


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 10.6
the day of the great judgment

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

τη ημερα της μεγαλης της κρισεως


Judah 6
And the angels who did not keep their domain, but abandoned their own dwelling, he keeps in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great day.

1 Enoch 10.12
bind them […] until the day of their judgment

αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλ απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν

δησον αυτους […] μεχρι ημερας κρισεως αυτων


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 80.2
In the days of the sinners […] the rain will be withheld


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 101.2
If he closes the windows of heaven, and withholds the dew and the rain from descending because of you, what will do you?


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 3.1
observe how all the trees appear withered and all their leaves are stripped


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 80.3
In the days of the sinners […] the fruit of the trees will be withheld at its normal time


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 101.4–5
Look at the captains who sail the sea! Their ships are shaken by wave and storm. […] the sea will swallow them up, and they will perish in it.


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 18.14
this has become a prison for the stars


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 21.6
These are the stars of heaven that transgressed the command


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 80.6
In the days of the sinners […] many heads of the stars will stray from the command


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 88.1
he seized that first star that had fallen from heaven […] and threw it into the abyss […] deep and desolate and dark


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 88.3
he took all the great stars […] and threw them into an abyss


Judah 12–13
They are waterless clouds carried along by the winds; autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.

1 Enoch 63.6
And they will say […] ‘darkness is our dwelling forever and ever’


Judah 14
It was also about these that Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying

1 Enoch 60.8
my great-grandfather, the seventh from Adam, was taken up


Judah 14–15
See, the Lord is coming amid his holy myriads, to execute judgement on all, and to convict all souls for all their wicked works that they did wickedly, and for all the hard things that wicked sinners spoke against him.

1 Enoch 1.9
Look, he comes with his myriads and his holy ones, to execute judgment on all, and to destroy all the wicked, and to convict all flesh for all their wicked works that they did wickedly, and hard things that wicked sinners spoke against him.

ιδου ηλθεν κυριος εν αγιαις μυριασιν αυτου ποιησαι κρισιν κατα παντων και ελεγξαι πασαν ψυχην περι παντων των εργων ασεβειας αυτων ων ησεβησαν και περι παντων των σκληρων ων ελαλησαν κατ αυτου αμαρτωλοι ασεβεις

οτι ερχεται συν ταις μυριασιν αυτου και τοις αγιοις αυτου ποιησει κρισιν κατα παντων και απολεσαι παντας τους ασεβεις και ελεγξαι πασαν σαρκα περι παντων εργων της ασεβειας αυτων ων ησεβησαν και σκληρων ων ελαλησαν λογων κατ αυτου αμαρτωλοι ασεβεις


Judah 16
These are grumblers and malcontents; they indulge their own lusts; and their mouth speaks great words, flattering people to their own advantage.

1 Enoch 5.4
You have turned aside, you have spoken proud and hard words with your unclean mouth


Judah 16
These are grumblers and malcontents; they indulge their own lusts; and their mouth speaks great words, flattering people to their own advantage.

1 Enoch 27.2
who utter with their mouth an improper word […] and speak hard things


Revelation of John

A few paraphrases or allusions.

Rev 6.9–10
And when he opened the fifth seal, I saw souls under the altar, those who were slaughtered for God’s word and the witness they held. And they were yelling in a loud voice, saying, ‘Holy and true Lord, why do you not judge and avenge our blood from those dwelling on the earth?’

1 Enoch 9.10
And now look, the spirits of the souls of the men who have died make suit, and their groan has come up to the gates of heaven


Rev 7.1
After these things I saw four angels standing at the earth’s four corners, grasping the earth’s four winds so no wind would blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.

1 Enoch 76.1,4
At the boundaries of the earth I saw twelve gates open for all the winds […] from those other eight [corner gates of the twelve], winds of punishment emerge; when they are sent they bring devastation to the entire earth and the water on it, all that live on it, and all that are in the water and on the land


Rev 12.5
And she gave birth to a son, a male, who is about to rule all the nations with an iron rod. And her child was taken to God and his throne.

1 Enoch 62.7
For the son of man was concealed from the beginning, and the Most High One preserved him in the presence of his power


Rev 14.20
And the winepress was stomped outside the city, and blood flowed from the winepress as high as horses’ bridles for one thousand six hundred stadia.

1 Enoch 100.3
A horse will wade up to its breast through the blood of the sinners, and the chariot will sink to its axles.


First Peter

This is a resconstructed allusion, based on a hypothetical typo.

1 Peter 3.19
ΕΝΩΚΑΙΤΟΙΣΕΝΦΥΛΑΚΗΠΝΕΥΜΑΣΙΝΠΟΡΕΥΘΕΙΣΕΚΗΡΥΞΕΝ

Translation
in which also he went and made a proclamation to the spirits in prison

There may be a scribal error here, in which the scribe misheard or misread the phrase ΕΝΩΚΑΙ instead of ΕΝΩΧΚΑΙ.

Emended Text
ΕΝΩΧΚΑΙΤΟΙΣΕΝΦΥΛΑΚΗΠΝΕΥΜΑΣΙΝΠΟΡΕΥΘΕΙΣΕΚΗΡΥΞΕΝ

Translation
And Enoch went and made a proclamation to the spirits in prison

Results in an ABBA thought process that uses the two most prominent (and correctly sequential) pre-Abrahamic patriarchs to set examples:

A. Judgment of angels: Enoch proclaimed to the fallen angels
B. Rescue through water: Noah’s family was saved through the flood
B. Rescue through water: Jesus’ followers are baptized
A. Judgment of angels: Jesus is enthroned with all angels subjected to him

Enoch does exactly this in 1 Enoch 12–16. First Peter 3 says their actions foreshadow Jesus’ salvation and authority.


Luke

Possible allusion.

Luke 3.23–37
Jesus was about thirty years old when he began his work. He was the son […] of Enoch

1 Enoch 10.12
bind them for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, until the day of their judgment

The genealogy for Jesus given in Luke 3 is very different from that given in Matthew 1, with eleven more generations between Abraham and Jesus. Luke also follows the Septuagint version of Genesis 11, adding another generation between Noah and Abraham. The result is exactly seventy generations from Enoch to Jesus.